Architectural center
Židovska steza 4
SI-1000 Ljubljana
T +386 1 25 16 010
Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri: 12:00-18:00
Sat, Sun, Mon, Holidays: closed




Štip, 1974, Bogdan Bogdanović, photo Damjan Momirovski

9. 3. - 17. 9. 2020

Dear colleagues, dear visitors. DESSA gallery is reopened.
Due to the great interest and media coverage, the exhibition will be Architecture. Sculpture. Memory. The art of monuments of Yugoslavia 1945–1991, which was opened on Monday, March 9, ie 4 days before the corona quarantine, on display until September 17, 2020.
Guided tour of the exhibition in Slovene and English language will be organized as part of the Summer Museum Night, June 20, 2020, between 6 and 9 p.m..
Dessa will be closed during the holidays, from July 20 to August 24, 2020.
On Monday, 9th March 2020 at 8 pm we kindly invite you to DESSA gallery to the opening of the exhibition Architecture. Sculpture. Remembrance. The Art of Monuments of Yugoslavia 1945–1991.
Mediapartner: Architectuul


Until July 2023, the exhibition was presented in:

_ 23. 11. 2019 - 5. 1. 2020: Piran, Galerija Herman Pečarič
_ 9. 3. - 17. 9. 2020: Ljubljana, galerija DESSA (uradno odprtje razstave; ker je bila zaradi korone galerija nekaj časa zaprta, je razstava trajala do 17. septembra.)
_ 10. 10. - 17. 10. 2020: Salon arhitekture Novi Sad: gostovanje razstave na internetu 
_ 29. 11. 2020: webinar Spomeniki, kreativna skupnost Avtomatik Delovišče
_ 28. 3. - 15. 4. 2021: skladišče Libertas in Mala loža, Koper, odprtje na Facebook povezavi
_ 16. 7. - 16. 8. 2021: Lapidarium, Novigrad, HR, organizator Jerica Ziherl
_ 26. 8. - 17. 9. 2021: Galerija Miroslav Kraljević, Zagreb, Hrvaška
_ 11. 12. 2021 - 11. 1. 2022: Trg Sv. Petra Cetinskog ali Rimski trg, Podgorica, Črna Gora
_ 11. 11. - 20. 11. 2022: Sarajevo, Galerija Urban Design Studio
_ 8. 6. - 17. 6. 2023: Beograd, festival BINA, Knez Mihailova, infront of Cultural Center of Beograd
_ 12. 10. - 5. 11. 2023: Novi Sad, MSUV

The interview with 92 years old Miodrag Živković was created within the project / platform of (In)appropriate monuments, made by a group of architects (Jelica Jovanović et al.), just before Živković's death.

As part of hosting the exhibition in Koper in the Libertas space on March 25, 2021, two more films were made:
Weltraum_ 02/06_ Architecture and Memory 
Razstava Arhitektura. Skulptura. Spomin. v Kopru

After almost 30 years since the break-up of Yugoslavia, we can take a stroll through a part of the shared architectural history with the benefit of distance. The heritage of Yugoslav architecture was taken on almost a decade ago by Croatian Architects Association in collaboration with Maribor Art Gallery with the regionally conceived project Unfinished Modernisations – Between Utopia and Pragmatism – Architecture and Urban Planning in the Former Yugoslavia and the Successor States, and last year with the global exhibition in New York City's MoMA Toward a Concrete Utopia: Architecture in Yugoslavia, 1948–1980.

In the architecture and art of ex-Yugoslavia, the monuments to the victims of the People's Liberation War stand out. Through their extraordinary artistic language, they remind us of the dignity of human life and death. They are powerful markers of the once-common state's public open space. Their unique architectural and artistic design has placed them on a field of timelessness which is not constrained by geographic and cultural borders, age, race, or political views. They were built and designed by Yugoslav architects and sculptors of the highest profile, such as Bogdan Bogdanović, Edvard Ravnikar, Vojin Bakić, Dušan Džamonja and many others. Instead of the regime's symbolism, their creations combined the present, the past, mystique, the elements of antique necropolises, ethnography and spatial poetics.
The monuments are predominantly designed as sculptural-architectural structures, abstract architectural sculptures. Many were constructed in concrete, which was elevated to the status of noble material by virtue of shaping and finishing. They are sited in authentic spatial situations and historical settings, designed as a commemorative path. Every monument tells a story connected with the events and victims which and whom they are a memorial to.
In mid-march 2019, Gallery DESSA, ab-Architect's Bulletin magazine and platform Architectuul began the preparations for the exhibition and publication named Architecture. Sculpture. Remembrance.; The Art of Monuments of Yugoslavia 1945–1991. On the basis of high architectural and artistic value of the structures and the exceptional contemplative qualities of the spatial designs, the curators selected 33 monuments and memorial complexes from all the republics and autonomous provinces of ex-Yugoslavia. This was no easy task as the said territory contains many more exceptional memorial creations. The exhibition was prepared in collaboration with experts: authors, photographers, and institutions from the ex-Yugoslav region and beyond, which has also laid the foundation for future co-operation. With the exhibition, we wish to present and evaluate the exceptional architecture of the Yugoslav monuments, whose aesthetic and structural innovation is enhanced by their idiosyncratic artistic expression.
Monuments are also political art. But in regard to the works presented, this neither diminishes nor increases their artistic value. They reflect something else: they are an uncompromising tribute to humanity, to reverence towards the victims, conveyed by means of the authors' individual artistic expression.
With the dissolution of Yugoslavia into individual independent states in 1991, it seems that the need for respecting the remembrance expressed by its memorials is waning. As a result, the present state of repair of the monuments and their treatment varies depending on the region. In some places, the past and the strivings of the previous generations are held in respectful memory while elsewhere, the monuments have been abandoned, left to ruin, or even desecrated. Due to their abstract nature, they may be used for very different purposes, such as shooting TV advertisements and music videos, or as fashion runways. Such use of monuments by individuals who have no appreciation or knowledge of the past and therefore cannot respect it represents misuse as well as contempt for the dignity of the victims and their memory.
The exhibition is planned to be shown in all the former Yugoslav republics. We wish to foster a sober and respectful assessment of the value of ex-Yugoslav monuments and draw attention to their cultural and contemplative significance, and thus lend support to the maintenance and preservation of the memorial areas. We also wish to present the exceptional, progressive, and still-contemporary creative language of their artists and other creators, which transcends the superficiality of the quest for the different, the exotic, the picturesque, and the unknown. Monuments are ties to the past, they reminiscent of the dignity of human life and death. And remembrance.
Thank you
We would like to thank everyone who has contributed their knowledge and time and thus helped us to create this exhibition: text writers, photographers, video artists … And to all who have or will in any way contribute to the promotion of the exhibition and the preservation of the monuments.
Boštjan Bugarič, Kristina Dešman, Maja Ivanič, Špela Kuhar, Eva Mavsar, Špela Nardoni Kovač, Damjana Zaviršek Hudnik

List of monuments at the exhibition
BUKOVŠKO POLJE, Slovenia, 1950
Jože Plečnik

DRAGA, Slovenia, 1953
Edvard Ravnikar
Boris Kalin
KAMPOR, Croatia, 1953
Edvard Ravnikar
Marij Pregelj
PODLJUBELJ, Slovenia, 1954
Boris Kobe

OSANKARICA, Slovenia, 1959
Branko Kocmut
Slavko Tihec

GRAZ, Austria, 1961
Boris Kobe
PODGORA, Croatia, 1962
Rajko Radović
Gradbeno podjetje Lavčević/Construction company Lavčević
ŠUMARICE, Serbia, 1963
Mihajlo Mitrović
Radivoje Tomić
Smiljan Klaić
Miodrag Živković
Ante Gržetić
Nebojša Delja
Jelica Bosnić
Gradimir Bosnić
Nandor Glid
Vojin Bakić
Jovan Soldatović
BUBANJ, NIŠ, Serbia, 1963
Mihajlo Mitrović
Ivan Sabolić

MOSTAR, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1965
Bogdan Bogdanović 
ILIRSKA BISTRICA, Slovenia, 1965
Janez Lenassi
Živa Baraga
SLOBODIŠTE, KRUŠEVAC, Serbia, 1965, 1978, 1985
Bogdan Bogdanović
Tomislav Milanović
Svetislav Živić
JASENOVAC, Croatia, 1965
Bogdan Bogdanović
Dušan Džamonija
Vladimir Veličković
VOGOŠĆA, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1969
Zlatko Ugljen
Petar Krstić
KOSMAJ, Srbija/Serbia, 1971
Gradimir Medaković
Vojan Stojić
SUTJESKA, TJENTIŠTE, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1971
Miodrag Živković
Đorđe Zloković
KOZARA, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1972
Dušan Džamonija
MITROVICA, Kosovo, 1973
Bogdan Bogdanović
ŠTIP, Macedonia, 1974
Bogdan Bogdanović
MAKEDONIUM, KRUŠEVO, Macedonia, 1974
Jordan Grabuloski
Iskra Grabuloska
Petar Mazev
Borko Lazeski
DRAŽGOŠE, Slovenia, 1976
Boris Kobe
Ive Šubic
Stojan Batič
KADINJAČA, Serbia, 1979
Aleksandar Đokić
Miodrag Živković
GRMEČ, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1979
Ljubomir Denković
BARUTANA, Montenegro, 1980
Svetlana Kana Radević 
DUDIK, VUKOVAR, Croatia, 1980
Bogdan Bogdanović
POPINA, ŠTULAC, Serbia, 1981
Bogdan Bogdanović
GARAVICE, BIHAĆ, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1981
Bogdan Bogdanović
DREŽNICA, Croatia, 1981
Zdenko Kolacio
PETROVA GORA, Croatia, 1981
Vojin Bakić
Berislav Šerbetić
PST, POT, LJUBLJANA, Slovenia, 1957–62, 1972–1985, 1985, 2016
Vlasto Kopač
Božo Pengov
Mitja Omersa
Franc Kastelic
Jože Štoka
Janez Koželj
TREBJESA, NIKŠIĆ, Črna Gora/Montenegro, 1987
Ljubomir Ljubo Vojvodić
ŠID, Vojvodina, 1988
Miroslav Krstonošić
Jovan Soldatović
Milan Sapundžić

Note: At the exhibition are used names of the former republics and autonomous regions of the SFRY.

Boštjan Bugarič
Kristina Dešman
Maja Ivanič
Špela Kuhar
Eva Mavsar
Špela Nardoni Kovač
Damjana Zaviršek Hudnik
Boštjan Bugarič, Slovenia
Fjollë N. Caka, Kosovo
Miha Dešman, Slovenia
Andrej Hrausky, Slovenia
Sanja Horvatinčić, Croatia
Ana Ivanovska, North Macedonia
Jelica Jovanović, Serbia
Jurij Kobe, Slovenia
Urša Komac, Australia
Janez Koželj, Slovenia
Ljiljana Miletić Abramović, Serbia
Aleksander Saša Ostan, Slovenia
Robert Potokar, Slovenia
Slavica Stamatović Vučković, Montenegro
Boris Trapara, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Aleš Vodopivec, Slovenia
Irena Weber, Slovenia
Blaž Budja, Slovenia
Roberto Conte, Italy
Vladimir Deskov, North Macedonia
Sanja Horvatinčić, Croatia
Andrej Hrausky, Slovenia
Besim Ibrahimi, Kosovo
Relja Ivanić, Serbia
Jelica Jovanović, Serbia
Miran Kambič, Slovenia
Jurij Kobe, Slovenia
Janez Koželj, Slovenia
Matija Kralj, Croatia
Damjan Momirovski, North Macedonia
Lazar Pejović, Montenegro
Boris Trapara, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Matej Vozlič, Slovenia
Virginia Vrecl, Slovenia
Miodrag Živković, Serbia
Map and graphic icons of monuments
Eva Mavsar, Slovenija/Slovenia
Video Memorial Drežnica
Matija Kralj, Croatia
Dignity of Memory
Ana Jovanović, Predrag Nedović, Aleksandra Djordjević, Serbia
Archive Video Material:
Vojvodina Monuments: Sremska Front Memorial
Production Radio Television Vojvodina
Editor Borko Hložan
Screenplay Borko Hložan, Vladimir Mitrović, Miroslav Krstonošić
Narrator Vladimir Mitrović
Director Dragoljub Bata Vojvodić
April 2011
(In)apropriate Monuments – Interview with Miodrag Živković
Documentary Jelica Jovanović
Camera Djordje Arambašić
Editing Marko Kažić
Film News Archive Belgrade, Serbia
-        Celebration at the Kadinjača Monument (Number: 039, 1979)    
-        The Soldiers Day July 4 1974 (Number: 028, 1974)   
-        Celebration of the Jasenovac Concentration Camp Liberation (Number: 016, 1975)
-        Opening of the Kragujevac Monument (Number: 043, 1963)
-        Bubanj Monument in Niš (Number: 042, 1963)

RTS Archive, Belgrade, Serbia
-        Messages from Kragujevac October (Reference: 104733, 2002)
-        Kosmaj before July’s Holidays (Reference: 189801, 1973)
-        TV Letter from the Old Place (Reference: 189909, 1982)
-        Profesor pomni/The Professor Remembers (Reference: 272419, 1941)
-        The Path into the Future 2 – Monuments (2018)
Kukla: Crne oči/Black Eyes
Senidah: Crno Srce/Black Heart
Alan Walker feat. Au/Ra and Tomine Harket Darkside/Temna stran
Nektar OK Fest, Tjentište, Sutjeska
Exhibition Catallogue
ab – Arhitektov bilten/ab – Architects' Bulletin, 224-225-226-227
letnik XLXI, 2020
Proof reading in Slovenian language
Katja Paladin
English translation
Sašo Podobnik
Graphic Design and AD
Nena Gabrovec
Print of exhibition panels
DESSA gallery
Židovska steza 4, Ljubljana, Slovenija
DESSA gallery, ab_Arhitektov bilten, DAL, Architectuul 
In cooperation with
Muzej primenjene umetnosti Beograd, Srbija/Museum of Applied Art Beograd, Serbia
Institut za povijest umjetnosti, Zagreb, Hrvaška/Institute of Art History, Zagreb, Croatia
Univerza v Črni Gori, Fakulteta za arhitekturo, Podgorica, Črna Gora/University of Montenegro, Faculty of Architecture, Podgorica, Montenegro
Expeditio, Kotor, Črna Gora/Kotor, Montenegro
Muzej za arhitekturo in oblikovanje MAO Ljubljana, Slovenia/Museum for Architecture and Design MAO, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Društvo arhitektov Ljubljana DAL, Ljubljana, Slovenija/Association of Architects Ljubljana DAL, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Osebni arhiv Bogdana Bogdanovića, Beograd, Srbija/Personal Archive of Bogdan Bogdanović,Belgrade, Serbia
Zgodovinski arhiv Kruševac, Srbija/Historical archive Kruševac, Serbia
Docomomo Srbija/Docomomo Serbia
(Ne)primerni spomeniki, Beograd, Srbija/(In)appropriate monuments, Belgrade, Serbia
Arhiv Filmske novosti, Beograd, Srbija/Archive Filmske novosti, Belgrade, Serbia
Radio televizija Srbija, Beograd, Srbija/Radio and Television Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Western Sydney University, School of Built Environment
Ljubljana, November 2019
Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Slovenia


Dignity of Memory

Arhitektura. Skulptura. Spomin. Umetnost ...

Intervju z Miodragom Živkovičem



_ 19. 02. 2020: weArch:
_ 25. 11. 2020: DOMUS:
_ 28. 01. 2021: MMC TV: Jóhannsson, Tilda Swinton in jugoslovanski brutalizem – čez dve milijardi let: film First and last people
"Zadnji in prvi ljudje je vizionarsko distopičen avdio-vizualni esej Jóhanna Jóhannssona, priznanega islandskega glasbenika in avtorja filmske glasbe. Gre za spoj fikcije in dokumentaristike, meditativno delo o minljivosti človeštva in njegovi zapuščini.

Četudi dobro uro trajajoč film govori o končni postaji evolucije človeštva v praktično nepojmljivem časovnem okviru, ki sega dve milijardi let v prihodnost, v njem ne vidimo živih bitij. Edini vidni protagonisti filma so brutalistični spomeniki, razkropljeni po državah nekdanje Jugoslavije. Edini očitno človeški element filma je glas Tilde Swinton ..."

9. 3. - 17. 9. 2020

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Raketa and the Intimacy of the Interior
International architectural exhibition

Architectural center
Židovska steza 4
SI-1000 Ljubljana
T +386 1 25 16 010
Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri: 12:00-18:00
Sat, Sun, Mon, Holidays: closed




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The DESSA gallery supports the KAJŽA initiative.