DESSA GALLERY
Architectural center
Židovska steza 4
SI-1000 Ljubljana

 

T +386 1 25 16 010

E galerija@dessa.si

 

Open
Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri: 12:00-18:00
Sat, Sun, Mon, Holidays: closed

 

 

DESSA: photos of exhibitions

Štip, 1974, Bogdan Bogdanović, photo Damjan Momirovski



ARCHITECTURE. SCULPTURE. REMEMBRANCE.
The Art of Monuments of Yugoslavia 1945–1991
9. 3. - 16. 4. 2020

On Monday, 9th March 2020 at 8 pm we kindly invite you to DESSA gallery to the opening of the exhibition Architecture. Sculpture. Remembrance. The Art of Monuments of Yugoslavia 1945–1991.


After almost 30 years since the break-up of Yugoslavia, we can take a stroll through a part of the shared architectural history with the benefit of distance. The heritage of Yugoslav architecture was taken on almost a decade ago by Croatian Architects Association in collaboration with Maribor Art Gallery with the regionally conceived project Unfinished Modernisations – Between Utopia and Pragmatism – Architecture and Urban Planning in the Former Yugoslavia and the Successor States, and last year with the global exhibition in New York City's MoMA Toward a Concrete Utopia: Architecture in Yugoslavia, 1948–1980.
 
In the architecture and art of ex-Yugoslavia, the monuments to the victims of the People's Liberation War stand out. Through their extraordinary artistic language, they remind us of the dignity of human life and death. They are powerful markers of the once-common state's public open space. Their unique architectural and artistic design has placed them on a field of timelessness which is not constrained by geographic and cultural borders, age, race, or political views. They were built and designed by Yugoslav architects and sculptors of the highest profile, such as Bogdan Bogdanović, Edvard Ravnikar, Vojin Bakić, Dušan Džamonja and many others. Instead of the regime's symbolism, their creations combined the present, the past, mystique, the elements of antique necropolises, ethnography and spatial poetics.
 
The monuments are predominantly designed as sculptural-architectural structures, abstract architectural sculptures. Many were constructed in concrete, which was elevated to the status of noble material by virtue of shaping and finishing. They are sited in authentic spatial situations and historical settings, designed as a commemorative path. Every monument tells a story connected with the events and victims which and whom they are a memorial to.
 
In mid-march 2019, Gallery DESSA, ab-Architect's Bulletin magazine and platform Architectuul began the preparations for the exhibition and publication named Architecture. Sculpture. Remembrance.; The Art of Monuments of Yugoslavia 1945–1991. On the basis of high architectural and artistic value of the structures and the exceptional contemplative qualities of the spatial designs, the curators selected 33 monuments and memorial complexes from all the republics and autonomous provinces of ex-Yugoslavia. This was no easy task as the said territory contains many more exceptional memorial creations. The exhibition was prepared in collaboration with experts: authors, photographers, and institutions from the ex-Yugoslav region and beyond, which has also laid the foundation for future co-operation. With the exhibition, we wish to present and evaluate the exceptional architecture of the Yugoslav monuments, whose aesthetic and structural innovation is enhanced by their idiosyncratic artistic expression.
 
Monuments are also political art. But in regard to the works presented, this neither diminishes nor increases their artistic value. They reflect something else: they are an uncompromising tribute to humanity, to reverence towards the victims, conveyed by means of the authors' individual artistic expression.
 
With the dissolution of Yugoslavia into individual independent states in 1991, it seems that the need for respecting the remembrance expressed by its memorials is waning. As a result, the present state of repair of the monuments and their treatment varies depending on the region. In some places, the past and the strivings of the previous generations are held in respectful memory while elsewhere, the monuments have been abandoned, left to ruin, or even desecrated. Due to their abstract nature, they may be used for very different purposes, such as shooting TV advertisements and music videos, or as fashion runways. Such use of monuments by individuals who have no appreciation or knowledge of the past and therefore cannot respect it represents misuse as well as contempt for the dignity of the victims and their memory.
 
The exhibition is planned to be shown in all the former Yugoslav republics. We wish to foster a sober and respectful assessment of the value of ex-Yugoslav monuments and draw attention to their cultural and contemplative significance, and thus lend support to the maintenance and preservation of the memorial areas. We also wish to present the exceptional, progressive, and still-contemporary creative language of their artists and other creators, which transcends the superficiality of the quest for the different, the exotic, the picturesque, and the unknown. Monuments are ties to the past, they reminiscent of the dignity of human life and death. And remembrance.
 
Thank you
We would like to thank everyone who has contributed their knowledge and time and thus helped us to create this exhibition: text writers, photographers, video artists … And to all who have or will in any way contribute to the promotion of the exhibition and the preservation of the monuments.
 
Curators
Boštjan Bugarič, Kristina Dešman, Maja Ivanič, Špela Kuhar, Eva Mavsar, Špela Nardoni Kovač, Damjana Zaviršek Hudnik

List of monuments at the exhibition
1
BUKOVŠKO POLJE, Slovenia, 1950
Jože Plečnik

2
DRAGA, Slovenia, 1953
Edvard Ravnikar
Boris Kalin
 
3
KAMPOR, Croatia, 1953
Edvard Ravnikar
Marij Pregelj
 
4
PODLJUBELJ, Slovenia, 1954
Boris Kobe

5
OSANKARICA, Slovenia, 1959
Branko Kocmut
Slavko Tihec

6
GRAZ, Austria, 1961
Boris Kobe
 
7
PODGORA, Croatia, 1962
Rajko Radović
Gradbeno podjetje Lavčević/Construction company Lavčević
 
8
ŠUMARICE, Serbia, 1963
Mihajlo Mitrović
Radivoje Tomić
Smiljan Klaić
Miodrag Živković
Ante Gržetić
Nebojša Delja
Jelica Bosnić
Gradimir Bosnić
Nandor Glid
Vojin Bakić
Jovan Soldatović
 
9
BUBANJ, NIŠ, Serbia, 1963
Mihajlo Mitrović
Ivan Sabolić

10
MOSTAR, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1965
Bogdan Bogdanović 
 
11
ILIRSKA BISTRICA, Slovenia, 1965
Janez Lenassi
Živa Baraga
 
12
SLOBODIŠTE, KRUŠEVAC, Serbia, 1965, 1978, 1985
Bogdan Bogdanović
Tomislav Milanović
Svetislav Živić
 
13
JASENOVAC, Croatia, 1965
Bogdan Bogdanović
 
14
MOSLAVINA, PODGARIĆ, Croatia, 1965
Dušan Džamonija
Vladimir Veličković
 
15
VOGOŠĆA, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1969
Zlatko Ugljen
Petar Krstić
 
16
KOSMAJ, Srbija/Serbia, 1971
Gradimir Medaković
Vojan Stojić
 
17
SUTJESKA, TJENTIŠTE, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1971
Miodrag Živković
Đorđe Zloković
 
18
KOZARA, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1972
Dušan Džamonija
 
19
MITROVICA, Kosovo, 1973
Bogdan Bogdanović
 
20
ŠTIP, Macedonia, 1974
Bogdan Bogdanović
 
21
MAKEDONIUM, KRUŠEVO, Macedonia, 1974
Jordan Grabuloski
Iskra Grabuloska
Petar Mazev
Borko Lazeski
 
22
DRAŽGOŠE, Slovenia, 1976
Boris Kobe
Ive Šubic
Stojan Batič
 
23
KADINJAČA, Serbia, 1979
Aleksandar Đokić
Miodrag Živković
 
24
GRMEČ, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1979
Ljubomir Denković
 
25
BARUTANA, Monte Negro, 1980
Svetlana Kana Radević 
 
26
DUDIK, VUKOVAR, Croatia, 1980
Bogdan Bogdanović
 
27
POPINA, ŠTULAC, Serbia, 1981
Bogdan Bogdanović
 
28
GARAVICE, BIHAĆ, Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1981
Bogdan Bogdanović
 
29
DREŽNICA, Croatia, 1981
Zdenko Kolacio
 
30
PETROVA GORA, Croatia, 1981
Vojin Bakić
Berislav Šerbetić
 
31
PST, POT, LJUBLJANA, Slovenia, 1957–62, 1972–1985, 1985, 2016
Vlasto Kopač
Božo Pengov
Mitja Omersa
Franc Kastelic
Jože Štoka
Janez Koželj
 
32
TREBJESA, NIKŠIĆ, Črna Gora/Monte Negro, 1987
Ljubomir Ljubo Vojvodić
 
33
ŠID, Vojvodina, 1988
Miroslav Krstonošić
Jovan Soldatović
Milan Sapundžić
 

Note: At the exhibition are used names of the former republics and autonomous regions of the SFRY.

Curators
Boštjan Bugarič
Kristina Dešman
Maja Ivanič
Špela Kuhar
Eva Mavsar
Špela Nardoni Kovač
Damjana Zaviršek Hudnik
 
Texts
Boštjan Bugarič, Slovenia
Fjollë N. Caka, Kosovo
Miha Dešman, Slovenia
Andrej Hrausky, Slovenia
Sanja Horvatinčić, Croatia
Ana Ivanovska, North Macedonia
Jelica Jovanović, Serbia
Jurij Kobe, Slovenia
Urša Komac, Australia
Janez Koželj, Slovenia
Ljiljana Miletić Abramović, Serbia
Aleksander Saša Ostan, Slovenia
Robert Potokar, Slovenia
Slavica Stamatović Vučković, Montenegro
Boris Trapara, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Aleš Vodopivec, Slovenia
Irena Weber, Slovenia
 
Photographs
Blaž Budja, Slovenia
Roberto Conte, Italy
Vladimir Deskov, North Macedonia
Sanja Horvatinčić, Croatia
Andrej Hrausky, Slovenia
Besim Ibrahimi, Kosovo
Relja Ivanić, Serbia
Jelica Jovanović, Serbia
Miran Kambič, Slovenia
Jurij Kobe, Slovenia
Janez Koželj, Slovenia
Matija Kralj, Croatia
Damjan Momirovski, North Macedonia
Lazar Pejović, Montenegro
Boris Trapara, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Matej Vozlič, Slovenia
Virginia Vrecl, Slovenia
Miodrag Živković, Serbia
 
Map and graphic icons of monuments
Eva Mavsar, Slovenija/Slovenia
 
Video
Video Memorial Drežnica
Matija Kralj, Croatia
 
Dignity of Memory
Ana Jovanović, Predrag Nedović, Aleksandra Djordjević, Serbia
 
Archive Video Material:
1
Vojvodina Monuments: Sremska Front Memorial
Production Radio Television Vojvodina
Editor Borko Hložan
Screenplay Borko Hložan, Vladimir Mitrović, Miroslav Krstonošić
Narrator Vladimir Mitrović
Director Dragoljub Bata Vojvodić
April 2011
 
2
(In)apropriate Monuments – Interview with Miodrag Živković
Documentary Jelica Jovanović
Camera Djordje Arambašić
Editing Marko Kažić
 
3
Film News Archive Belgrade, Serbia
-        Celebration at the Kadinjača Monument (Number: 039, 1979)    
-        The Soldiers Day July 4 1974 (Number: 028, 1974)   
-        Celebration of the Jasenovac Concentration Camp Liberation (Number: 016, 1975)
-        Opening of the Kragujevac Monument (Number: 043, 1963)
-        Bubanj Monument in Niš (Number: 042, 1963)

4
RTS Archive, Belgrade, Serbia
-        Messages from Kragujevac October (Reference: 104733, 2002)
-        Kosmaj before July’s Holidays (Reference: 189801, 1973)
-        TV Letter from the Old Place (Reference: 189909, 1982)
-        Profesor pomni/The Professor Remembers (Reference: 272419, 1941)
-        The Path into the Future 2 – Monuments (2018)
 
Videos
Kukla: Crne oči/Black Eyes
Senidah: Crno Srce/Black Heart
Alan Walker feat. Au/Ra and Tomine Harket Darkside/Temna stran
Nektar OK Fest, Tjentište, Sutjeska
 
Exhibition Catallogue
ab – Arhitektov bilten/ab – Architects' Bulletin, 224-225-226-227
letnik XLXI, 2020
 
Proof reading in Slovenian language
Katja Paladin
 
English translation
Sašo Podobnik
 
Graphic Design and AD
Nena Gabrovec
 
Print of exhibition panels
PRIMA IP
 
Producer
DESSA gallery
Židovska steza 4, Ljubljana, Slovenija
 
Organizers
DESSA gallery, ab_Arhitektov bilten, DAL, Architectuul 
 
In cooperation with
Muzej primenjene umetnosti Beograd, Srbija/Museum of Applied Art Beograd, Serbia
Institut za povijest umjetnosti, Zagreb, Hrvaška/Institute of Art History, Zagreb, Croatia
Univerza v Črni Gori, Fakulteta za arhitekturo, Podgorica, Črna Gora/University of Montenegro, Faculty of Architecture, Podgorica, Montenegro
Expeditio, Kotor, Črna Gora/Kotor, Montenegro
Muzej za arhitekturo in oblikovanje MAO Ljubljana, Slovenia/Museum for Architecture and Design MAO, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Društvo arhitektov Ljubljana DAL, Ljubljana, Slovenija/Association of Architects Ljubljana DAL, Ljubljana, Slovenia
Osebni arhiv Bogdana Bogdanovića, Beograd, Srbija/Personal Archive of Bogdan Bogdanović,Belgrade, Serbia
Zgodovinski arhiv Kruševac, Srbija/Historical archive Kruševac, Serbia
Docomomo Srbija/Docomomo Serbia
(Ne)primerni spomeniki, Beograd, Srbija/(In)appropriate monuments, Belgrade, Serbia
Arhiv Filmske novosti, Beograd, Srbija/Archive Filmske novosti, Belgrade, Serbia
Radio televizija Srbija, Beograd, Srbija/Radio and Television Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
Western Sydney University, School of Built Environment
 
Ljubljana, November 2019
 
Sponsor
Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Slovenia

 

IN MEDIA
_ 19. 02. 2020: weArch: https://www.wearch.eu/larte-dei-monumenti-della-jugoslavia/

ARCHITECTURE. SCULPTURE. REMEMBRANCE.
The Art of Monuments of Yugoslavia 1945–1991
9. 3. - 16. 4. 2020


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The Art of Monuments of Yugoslavia 1945–1991
ARCHITECTURE. SCULPTURE. REMEMBRANCE.
2020 PRITZKER PRIZE FOR GRAFTON ARCHITECTS

DESSA GALLERY
Architectural center
Židovska steza 4
SI-1000 Ljubljana

 

T +386 1 25 16 010

E galerija@dessa.si

 

Open
Tue, Wed, Thu, Fri: 12:00-18:00
Sat, Sun, Mon, Holidays: closed

 

 

DESSA: photos of exhibitions



Program is supported by
e_news

By entering my email address, I agree to receive e-invitations and information about the events of the Dessa Gallery and confirm that I am aware of personal data protection policy.